The summer season starts in February and continues until May. (60 metres (197 ft)) Agastya Mala, which has an elevation of 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) is only about 60 km from the city. , The Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board is a government owned financial institution in the state to mobilize funds for infrastructure development from outside the state revenue, aiming at overall infrastructure development of the state. Kerala has the highest population of Christians among all the states of India. , In 2015, Kerala had the highest conviction rate of any state, over 77%. The industry provides employment to approximately 1.2 million people.. The name Male is thought to come from the Malayalam word Mala ('hill'). Traditional industries manufacturing items; coir, handlooms, and handicrafts employ around one million people. India is a geographically rich and diverse country. Kerala culture is a complete whole made up of a blending of various religions, communities, regional cultures and language variations. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft above sea level. Encyclopædia Britannica. The … Kunhali, V. "Muslim Communities in Kerala to 1798" PhD Dissertation Aligarh Muslim University (1986). A third major IT Hub is under construction centred around Kozhikode known as Cyberpark.  It was elaborated through centuries of contact with neighbouring and overseas cultures.  The world's oldest teak plantation 'Conolly's Plot' is in Nilambur. Historians do not rule out the possibility of Islam being introduced to Kerala as early as the seventh century CE.  It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication. India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle, Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009. The district stretches 78 kilometres (48 mi) along the shores of the Arabian Sea on the west, Kollam district lies on the north with Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu on the east and south respectively.. This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 07:04. In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper.  The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. There is a large Keralan diaspora in the Middle East.  On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act.  They established a trading center at Tangasseri in Quilon during 1502 as per the invitation of the then Queen of Quilon to start spices trade from there.  According to the 2011 census, Kerala had a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.6.  Kerala has only performed well recently in the Ranji Trophy cricket competition, in 2017–18 reaching the quarterfinals for the first time in history.  A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbour for spice transport. , Kochi Metro is the metro rail system in the city of Kochi. , There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur.  Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them. The latter section consists of majority Salafists (the Mujahids). Weil, Shalva.  Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanacherry, thus supporting the hypothesis. For other uses, see. The lowlands are comparatively narrow, consisting of rivers, deltas and seashore.  Another traditional sport of Kerala is the boat race, especially the race of Snake boats. The midland region lying between the Western Ghats and lowlands is made up of small and tiny hills and valleys.  Since 2010, Kerala Queer Pride has been held annually across various cities in Kerala, In June 2019, the Kerala government passed a new order that members of the transgender community should not be referred to as the "third gender" or "other gender" in government communications.  The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways in Kerala.  Unlike in many other states, the urban-rural divide is not visible in Kerala with respect to mobile phone penetration. When you visit Kerala, you'll see men and women wearing completely white attires. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. T. C. Yohannan, Suresh Babu, Sinimol Paulose, Angel Mary Joseph, Mercy Kuttan, K. Saramma, K. C. Rosakutty, Padmini Selvan and Tintu Luka are the other Arjuna Award winners from Kerala. The accidents are mainly the result of the narrow roads and irresponsible driving. The third National Family Health Survey ranks Kerala first in "Institutional Delivery" with 100% births in medical facilities.  The word Kerala is first recorded as Ketalaputo ('son of Chera[s]') in a 3rd-century-BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare. It is one of the festivals celebrated with cultural elements such as Vallam Kali, Pulikali, Pookkalam, Thumbi Thullal and Onavillu. An insurrection at the Port of Quilon between the Arabs and the Portuguese led to the end of the Portuguese era in Quilon. Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English and international channels via cable television.  The Nilambur–Shoranur line is one of the shortest broad gauge railway lines in India. The corporation is divided into three zones (North, Central and South), with the headquarters in Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala's capital city). The major beaches are at Kovalam, Varkala, Kozhikode, Fort Kochi, Cherai, Alappuzha, Payyambalam, Kappad, Muzhappilangad and Bekal.  The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741.  Rice is a dominant staple that is eaten at all times of day. ", Devika, J.  In April 2016, the Economic Times reported that 250,000 residents undergo treatment for cancer. Kerala is one of the smallest states of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile states of Travancore-Cochin and Madras.  Roads in Kerala include 1,812 kilometres (1,126 mi) of national highway; 1.6% of the nation's total, 4,342 kilometres (2,698 mi) of state highway; 2.5% of the nation's total, 27,470 kilometres (17,070 mi) of district roads; 4.7% of the nation's total, 33,201 kilometres (20,630 mi) of urban (municipal) roads; 6.3% of the nation's total, and 158,775 kilometres (98,658 mi) of rural roads; 3.8% of the nation's total.  As of 2017-18, there are 6,691 modern medicine institutions under the department of health services, of which the total bed strength is 37,843; 15,780 in rural areas and 22,063 in urban. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. When the procession visits homes around the temple, people will usually present rice, coconuts, and other offerings to it.  The "Kerala phenomenon" or "Kerala model of development" of very high human development and in comparison low economic development has resulted from a strong service sector.:48:1. Calicut International Airport, which was opened in 1988, is the second-oldest existing airport in Kerala and the oldest in the Malabar region.  It is noted in Sangam literature that the Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan ruled most of modern Kerala from his capital in Kuttanad, and controlled the port of Muziris, but its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas, which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi) in Quilon. It has deserts, coastal areas, mountains and plateaus. , Cricket and football became popular in the state; both were introduced in Malabar during the British colonial period in the 19th century.  The Matsya Purana, among the oldest of the 18 Puranas, uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the setting for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and the king of the region. , The Indian Naval Academy, located at Ezhimala, is Asia's largest, and the world's third-largest, naval academy.  In 2012, it overtook the Taj Mahal to be the number one travel destination in Google's search trends for India. Katz 200/* Religion */ 0; Koder 1973; Menachery 1998. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular. :11 Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). Timber trees like teak and rosewood are grown in this region. , According to the Sangam classic Purananuru, the Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. , Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala.  The Malayalam calendar, a solar sidereal calendar started from 825 CE in Kerala, finds common usage in planning agricultural and religious activities. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra.   The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats, making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon.  Hindus represent the biggest religious group in all districts except Malappuram, where they are outnumbered by Muslims.  Jimmy George was a notable Indian volleyball player, rated in his prime as among the world's ten best players.  Kerala is known for its ecotourism initiatives which include mountaineering, trekking and bird-watching programmes in the Western Ghats as the major activities. Kerala is home to forty four rivers and the largest river is the Periyar River which is nearly 244kms long. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses.  The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces; contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper.  In October 2017, Kochi Metro was named the "Best Urban Mobility Project" in India by the Urban Development Ministry, as part of the Urban Mobility India (UMI) International Conference hosted by the ministry every year..  It is synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people.  Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. Adaptation is the evolutionary process where an organism becomes better suited to its habitat.  The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala.  By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively. The average temperature goes up to 95 °F (35 °C) in these months.  Raga-based renditions known as sopanam accompany kathakali performances. , Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.  Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, home gardens, animal husbandry and business process outsourcing.  Other popular sports include badminton, basketball and kabaddi. A Malayalam version of Google News was launched in September 2008. 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