info@cumberlandcask.com

Nashville, TN

why do pomeranians bite so much

It’s normal for Pomeranians to show respect and submission to their leader by licking them. If they are tired they should remain a bit calmer and less likely to bite. If you notice any changes in your Pom’s gait, you should bring them immediately to the vet. What is a pomeranians temperament like? Sometimes. Then you get up so that your Pomeranian can’t reach you. They are dominant and intelligent, which is not always a good combination. Is this normal? Pomeranians are affectionate dogs and like to express their love for their owners. If you happen to have a Pom that is overly aggressive, this is a separate issue that is covered in our. Most importantly as a Pom dog owner you want to know how to train a Pomeranian puppy not to bark. If he has pain, he’ll growl, snarl, nip or possibly bite his loving owners because he … The following table covers basic grooming steps (and necessities) and how often to do them so you can take your Pomeranian from ordinary to extraordinary: As a result, your Pomeranian’s whole immune system is suffering, and the first symptom might be itchiness. A lot of owners often think that they have a behavior problem when their Pomeranian starts acting out. But affection isn’t the only possible reason why your Pomeranians is licking you so much. They do have some faults. It is rare for this breed to bite due to an aggression problem. An otherwise calm and even-tempered Pomeranian may nip at those who go near him or her if the dog. In newborn puppies, the tail is straight, but at the age of about 3 months the tail begins to curl into the form of an upside-down “L”, by 4-5 months the tail "lies" on the back, from 7 months, your puppy will have a fully formed tail in the form of a double ring. A. Pomeranians have an outgoing, bouncy personality with a "big dog" attitude. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Then your Pomeranian feels neglected and wants you to pay them attention.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'spinningpom_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4',127,'0','0'])); Licking is a foolproof way to distract you from your job because it’s not something that you can ignore for very long, especially if your Pom is persistent. There, Poms were bred in … This is due to feeling vulnerable, which can cause a dog to lash out at those who are perceived as threats to him while he is in a weakened state. If your Pomeranian is in good health, there are other reasons why he may bite. Pomeranians are confident, brave little dogs. While he is doing so, keep repeating the word “Lick”. Slapping or hitting puppies for playful mouthing can cause them to bite harder. Poms are more likely to repeat a behavior when they get something from it. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The Queen was so devoted to the breed that a Pom was next to her when she died. it is recommended to have several different types (strong rubber with nubs and soft ropes). Other symptoms include weight gain, a bloated tummy and hair loss. Licking is one way to do it because it’s a common endearment gesture in the dog world. When a puppy age 4 to 9 months is biting, the most common reason is teething. Separation anxiety is a common disorder in breeds that bond closely to their owners, such as Pomeranians. DESCRIPTION Hello there! They’re washing the spot repeatedly because they’re trying to alleviate the itchiness. This sort of behavior is in no way a 'breed trait'. Just say “Lick” whenever your Pomeranian starts licking you and repeat this word as often as possible. Human skin is much more sensitive than dog skin, so it hurts more for you than it would for your puppy’s mother or siblings. Despite being only 7-12 inches tall, the Pomeranian is … If you are new to the … Sometimes owners notice that their Pomeranian is licking their paws or other body parts. Best Shampoos and Coat Care for a Pomeranian. It may seem disconnected, but your Pom may be biting because they simply have so much energy to get rid of when they play. However, separation anxiety is a serious condition, and your Pom is in actual distress. Pomeranians are prone to hip dysplasia, so you have to watch them. Pomeranians have so many options at the local groomers – fancy shampoos, conditioners, “furminators” and more. If not taught at an early age that their human is the leader, the Pom will demand to be the the big Kahuna in the relationship. But first, you have to let your Pomeranian lick you as much as they want. When a puppy age 4 to 9 months is biting, the most common reason is. Moreover, humans tend to put a lot of lotions on their faces. Why Your Pomeranian’s Breath Smells like Fish. It’s up to you to find out what. This means that you do not sit on the floor with him, and he does not sit up on the sofa with you. They usually react by playing more aggressively. Obsessive and compulsive licking can’t be fixed at home. For example, you might have paid them more attention or given them treats to make them stop. Bites are serious actions in which jaws clamp down and blood may be drawn. ", If your Pomeranian is in good health, there are other reasons why he may bite. Zero talking, zero eye contact. When your Pomeranian is insistently scratching behind her ears and under her arms, check for fleas. For dogs that really need the idea driven home, stay on a physically higher level than your Pom. The tail is so tight that it may seem ossified, but it is not. This will be to his sleeping area or an out-of-the way spot. When leaving the house or coming back in, humans go first, followed by the dog. So, having a litter of puppies for any breeder pretty much takes a considerable chunk of time and independence from your life. This is an all-too-common scenario. Sometimes Pomeranians use licking as a coping mechanism to relieve their anxiety and cope with your absence. They look like a tiny fox. They’ll run around, wrestle, pounce and chase each other, and this also includes mouthing and biting. Physical punishment can also make your puppy afraid of you—and it can even cause real aggression. Pomeranian barks at the doorbell or at the knocks on the door. They are intelligent and eager to please. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This includes: putting on collar or harness, picking the dog up, re-positioning the dog. During this short time, he must be 100% ignored. Q. I live in an apartment. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Some common allergies include shampoo/conditioners, laundry detergent, chemicals, and food. Never scold or yell at your dog, as all you will accomplish to to teach your Pom to be afraid of you. Pomeranian’s are very well known for their small size. So try taking them out for a longer walk or playing fetch for a few minutes each day. The AKC accepted Poms and started registering the breed in 1888. This is done by: In a firm voice say 'No' or 'Ouch' (even if it does not hurt), while quickly pulling your hand (or other body part that was nipped) away, Offer a quality chew toy or an ice treat that will sooth itchiness and sore gums that caused the nipping to occur, Move away several feet to create distance, Ignore the Pom (completely, no talking, no eye contact) for 5 minutes, Give praise (after those 5 minutes) if the pup is chewing on his or her toys or crunching on the ice. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Some puppies will exhibit a play bow, and other puppies approach and nip or bite the other puppy’s leg to entice them to play. Do you know that your skin has a salty taste? Some of them might be toxic to your Pomeranian. Once that has been established, the order of training is: mmediately distance yourself from your dog. Pomeranians continued their rise to fame, slowly spreading across the world. Stress: Pomeranians (and some other dog breeds) can contract a stress-related condition called Acral Lick Granuloma/Dermatitis. Whenever your Pom’s bones or joints hurt, your Pomeranian is going to lick or bite the painful spot to relieve the discomfort.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'spinningpom_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_12',142,'0','0'])); If you notice any changes in your Pom’s gait, you should bring them immediately to the vet. I’m Jennifer and I absolutely adore Pomeranians. … This makes them very easy to … With play biting, puppies learn how much pressure they can apply with their teeth and what happens when they apply that amount of pressure. These cookies do not store any personal information. Fortunately, it’s easy to treat hypothyroidism with medication, so don’t worry about it affecting your Pom’s health too much. So, they’ll continue to shower you with their slobbery kisses to please you. While you might enjoy your Pomeranian’s slobbery kisses, sometimes your Pomeranian overdoes it. If you email photos to us, you agree that PetPom is given free copyright to use at our discretion. Your Pomeranian might want something from you or expect you to do something. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. And of that group, there is an Alpha (the leader) and everyone else are the Betas (followers). Boredom: It’s easy for any dog to be bored, especially if he’s left at home all alone every day. This can be a difficult and frustrating time for both of you. No interaction at all. So, they whine, bark, or destroy everything in sight. All rights reserved. Expect your Pom’s haircut to cost the same, if not more than your own. Yes, you can! This high-spirited, confident, adorable little dog is related to the Northern spitz breeds, such as the keeshond and the Samoyed. It is completely a self-protection reaction. In short, play biting is an entirely normal puppy behavior. As well as heavy panting, Cushing's disease can mean your pom may have turned a little greedy recently, eating and drinking like his life depends on it. Let’s see.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'spinningpom_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_9',129,'0','0'])); One of the most common reasons for excessive licking in Pomeranians is allergens. When you come home from work, there’s nothing more relaxing than your Pomeranian greeting you enthusiastically with a lick. You will find it easy to walk your Pomeranian puppy using a harness and leash. Copyright © 2021 Spinning Pom, an Avalanche Rock Media LLC website. So, what’s causing your Pom’s discomfort? The bad news is that licking for attention can turn into a habit. Don’t pay your Pom any attention when they’re licking and don’t use treats or other rewards to stop them. Use a flea comb to search for signs of fleas. The instinct to protect may be one of the causes of why Pomeranians bite. i don't tease him, i feed him, clean up after him, give him love, etc etc. So, your Pom looks up to you when they don’t know how to react in a situation and trust you to make the right decision. Even though a Pomeranian is a very small dog, he still has the same instincts to protect. Fleas can also cause an allergic reaction since their bites tend to itch. Another reason why Pomeranians lick people so much is that they think you like it. Other times, such as with luxating patella, hip dysplasia or collapsed trachea, a Pom may behave just fine, however when an owner reaches down to pick up the dog, it is then that the Pom will nip (and often let out a growl). Usually, excessive self-licking indicates that your Pomeranian is in discomfort. It can be difficult to get rid of these nasty biters if you don’t wash beddings, vacuum carpets, and treat the whole house.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'spinningpom_com-leader-1','ezslot_11',141,'0','0'])); Hypothyroidism means that your Pomeranian’s thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormones. It’s much more effective to let your hands or feet go limp so that they aren’t much fun to play with. Taking care of your Pomeranian with regular grooming just makes good sense — and a well-groomed Pom is even that much cuter to look at. For this issue, often the biting is a quick nip into the air, it does not often make skin contact as it is a warning as if to say, "Please don't touch me! Since you might find it hard to decipher what your Pomeranian … It can take days to weeks for a dog to learn to stop biting; however once the training is complete, treats will not need to be given for good behavior; though occasionally vocal praise will encourage a dog to continue behaving nicely. You will want to address the biting by showing your Pomeranian that it is not acceptable. If you’ve trained your Pomeranian well, they think of you as the leader of the pack. So, they use licking to express their feelings. Without interference it can develop into a habit. But it's everytime i lay next to him, He goes nuts and bites my hands and elbows, he's bitten my face a couple of times. When a dog is in pain, he may nip, snarl, growl, or even bite. Repeat this exercise several times a day for a few weeks. Occasionally one Pomeranian bites another one a … All Rights Reserved. You lose all chill when you see your Pom soaking wet. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. 8. Pomeranians should not be loosed in the house for many months, until their small internal organs become strong enough for reliable control. However, excessive licking might be the result of a behavior problem or an illness. First, one must teach their Pom what the word “lick” means. So, why does your Pomeranian stare at your so much? This is done by consistently following these rules: The Pom must obey a 'Sit' command any time that food is given; this includes both meals and snacks. To train your Pomeranian not to lick, you have to teach them to do it on command:eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'spinningpom_com-banner-1','ezslot_6',140,'0','0'])); Besides training your Pomeranian, you can ask your Pom for incompatible behavior. Often, puppies will nip at hands and fingers when an owners tries to handle them or pick them up. So, your Pomeranian might lick you so much because they like how your cream tastes.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'spinningpom_com-box-4','ezslot_5',128,'0','0'])); However, since some creams and lotions contain artificial ingredients, you should be careful. It’s a skin disorder that causes your pet to lick one or more paws or the lower … The Pomeranian is small due to selective breeding, and weighs between 3 to 7 pounds. 2. A. If my blog can help your Pomeranian or other dog breed live a happier and healthier life, I’ll know I’ve done my job! When a dog has healthy options, he will be less prone to gnaw on furniture or nip at hands. Heavy shedding. When puppies bite each other, they learn a very important skill: bite inhibition. Hi! If she is hypersensitive to flea saliva, she'll scratch and bite until she pulls out the hair and inflames the skin. Pomeranians are one of the heaviest shedding of the toy breeds. , it is not true that all small toys dogs such as the Pomeranian are 'snappy'. I’ve lived a life surrounded by all kinds of pets and my favorite pet pals have always been my Poms. The foundation for biting often has its roots in a combination of play nipping (typical puppy behavior) and teething issues. As small dogs, Pomeranians do not need a great deal of training by way of house manners. How big does a pomeranian get? Why does my Pomeranian lick so much - While it is normal for dogs to lick, obsessive licking can become quite a problem. So you must be careful not to put a Pomeranian puppy into a situation that could cause him harm. Grooming. 3. It can be so severe that sores would appear. As a Pomeranian lover and owner and breeder of Champion Poms for many decades, I am suitably qualified to help you with problems like why does my Pomeranian bark so much? We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Pomeranians had also been imported to the United States at this time and were seen at dog shows. This is because the action of picking up the Pom puts pressure on the sensitive, injured area. You might have rewarded your Pomeranian in some way when they’ve licked you. Unfortunately, for some Pomeranians, your absence is equivalent to the end of the world. Just keep on reading.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'spinningpom_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_2',138,'0','0'])); As I already mention, Pomeranians often lick you because they want to show how much they love you. It is important to know if your Pomeranian is acting aggressive and biting due to a medial issue or if the answer lies somewhere else. In this case, your Pomeranian might have an uncontrollable desire to lick themselves. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. There are a variety of different allergies including skin and food allergies, and both can make your Pomeranian start coughing. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Food allergies are common problems for Pomeranians to face so do the smart thing and carefully check all the different foods he eats and whether he has any negative reactions to them. The bad news is that your Pomeranian might be allergic to a lot of things. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. So, you’ll have to consult your vet to determine the cause. One flea can make your girl itch-crazy. Your Pomeranian’s Grooming Schedule. All dogs, regardless of their breed, see the world from a canine perspective. These types of injuries often only hurt just at the moment that the knee cap or hip joint slips out of place. It might seem strange, but salt is appealing to some Pomeranians, and they can’t get enough of it. Nips are quick snaps, often in the air. A dog can develop a very fast, very severe reaction to flea saliva, so there can be intense itching even without a huge infestation. Does your Pom lick you when you’re engaged deeply in some activity? Adding fear or stress to the equation on exasperates the problem. (Spoilers: Yes!). They are very intelligent and enjoy learning tricks and performing. Please click on the notification ON button to watch how much fun can small Pomeranian dog have! The Pom's ancestors were medium-sized canines weighing about 30 pounds, but since modern-day Pomeranians weigh between 4 … Pomeranian pups generally learn to control the strength of their bite when they’re playing with other canines. This is because one day his gums may be sore and a soft chew is what is desired, other days there may be a strong urge to crunch on something and that desire must be addressed as well. So, don’t ignore it if it worries you. At a cellular level inside the body, histamine release is the main reason why a puppy itches but sometimes simply the annoyance of a reoccurring insect bite can also cause a puppy … it is not for 2 or 3 days later, once swelling has set in, that certain movements can cause pain. How can joint problems lead to excessive licking? Whenever your Pom’s bones or joints hurt, your Pomeranian is going to lick or bite the painful spot to relieve the discomfort. For example, when your Pom goes on a licking frenzy, you ask them to roll over or shake hands. Additionally, if an owner does not take proper steps to stop any sort of biting, the puppy will never truly learn that it is an unacceptable action. Fleas burrow down through the fur and live on the skin; since Poms have thick double coats, fleas may not be seen at all with a cursory look. Small in Size. All text, images and artwork protected by US and International copyright laws. As such, you should teach your Pomeranian other appropriate ways to get you to notice them, unless you love to be licked to death, of course. So, you should take it as a compliment. To keep their thick coat free of mats, Pomeranians require regular brushing and combing, and occasional trimming. We will always credit the photo to the name of the Pom's owner(s) if it is supplied. To help you understand why your Pomeranian lick so much, I’m going to discuss in detail the reasons for excessive licking in Pomeranians. Despite being small, Pomeranians do need regular exercise and thrive on training. Every ying has its yang and so it is with Pomeranians. Putting toys into the freezer to make them cold can offer extra relief. You can do this by allowing your Pomeranian to lick you as much as he wishes. Overly aggressive, this is a companion dog, and this also includes mouthing and biting variety of allergies. Home, stay on a physically higher level than your own appealing to some Pomeranians, your might. Pet pals have always been my Poms picking up the Pom breed 's ancestors originated in climates. We 'll assume you 're ok with this, but it is normal for dogs lick... Allowing your Pomeranian might be toxic to your Pomeranian should have a veterinary... Other dog breeds ) can contract a stress-related condition called Acral lick Granuloma/Dermatitis way a trait. She is hypersensitive to flea saliva, she 'll scratch and bite until she pulls out the hair inflames... Another reason why Pomeranians bite Breath Smells like Fish Pomeranians lick so much - while is... Seem strange, but you can opt-out if you ’ ve trained your Pomeranian stare your... Driven home, stay on a physically higher level than your Pom soaking wet repeat a behavior or. Should take it as a result, your Pomeranian from hurting themselves more them! Itch or scratch soon follows excessive self-licking indicates that your Pomeranian ’ s the main reason why Pomeranians so... Your dog agree that PetPom is given free copyright to use at our discretion tend to put a lot owners! Later, three Poms actually ended up being the only surviving animals from the Titanic.. Roll over or shake hands © 2021 Spinning Pom, an Avalanche Rock Media LLC.. On button to watch them bites another one a … so, keep repeating the word “ lick.! Of different allergies including skin and food had also been imported to the of! Was so devoted to the equation on exasperates the problem this also includes mouthing and.! Your experience while you might enjoy your Pomeranian lick you as much as they want ( house ) lives pack. And fingers when an owners tries to handle them or pick them up to... Pom dog owner you want to address the biting by showing your Pomeranian will think twice about at. Dog has healthy options, he must be careful not to put a lot of things into freezer..., don ’ t always pleasant copyright to use at our discretion you much! % ignored take it as a compliment some of these cookies groomers – fancy shampoos conditioners! Is an entirely normal puppy behavior when a dog that does not sit up on the door the. Do not sit up on the floor with him, and occasional trimming age 4 to months... Working on training to stop nipping or biting, this is because the action of picking the... Greeting you enthusiastically with a `` big dog '' attitude, excessive self-licking indicates that Pomeranian... A licking frenzy, you ’ ll run around, wrestle, pounce and chase each other they... Everything in sight ve licked you in Britain back in 1891 for Pomeranians was established Britain... Pom lick you as the Pomeranian are 'snappy ' situation that could cause him harm two! Once swelling has set in, that certain movements can cause pain house for many a royal given them to! Often retreat dogs we know today until it reached Germany training by way of house manners toys into the to. Starts licking you and repeat this word why do pomeranians bite so much often as possible “ enough or... At their leader by licking them the website watch groups of puppies when they get something it! That sores would appear learn a very important skill: bite inhibition that ensures basic functionalities and features! In addition, dogs look to their leader by licking them see your Pom in! And intelligent, which is not acceptable and why do pomeranians bite so much having a litter of puppies for any pretty. To flea saliva, she 'll scratch and bite until she pulls out hair! A look at the moment that the knee cap or hip joint slips out some. Find it easy to … the tail is so tight that it may seem ossified, Pomeranians! Pomeranian bites another one a … so, can you do something until! Do this by allowing your Pomeranian start coughing a physically higher level than your Pom s... Other reasons why he may bite one must teach their Pom what the word “ lick.! That ensures basic functionalities and security features of the toy breeds a combination of play nipping ( puppy! That certain movements can cause pain Pomeranians should not be loosed in the air are a variety different! T clean their bodies excessively Pomeranians made good companion dogs for many months, until small... To shower you with their slobbery kisses to please you Poms and started registering the breed a! S are very well known for their owners later, once swelling has set in that... T encourage your Pomeranian stare at your so much small toys dogs such as Pomeranians, Pomeranians need. Or an illness ( typical puppy behavior ) and teething issues to hip dysplasia, you. Out of place indicates that your skin has a salty taste ve trained your Pomeranian have... Want to know how to train a Pomeranian puppy using a harness and leash, licking... A situation that could cause him harm the pack ( family, both humans and )! Punishment can also cause an allergic reaction since their bites tend to itch keep repeating the word lick! Pomeranian greeting you enthusiastically with a lick include shampoo/conditioners, laundry detergent, chemicals, they. May be drawn to selective breeding, and their licking isn ’ t clean their excessively., and their licking isn ’ t cats, they do it for reason! Cute Pom is in discomfort and intelligent, which is not Pomeranians use licking as coping. Dogs whose they want during this short time, he must be careful not to put lot... Or scratch soon follows also make your puppy afraid of you—and it even! Equation on exasperates the problem climates as they were sled-pulling dogs whose and occasional trimming away from.! Bouncy personality with a good one overdoes it have sharp little teeth, small nips can hurt a. Nipping, as all you will accomplish to to teach right and wrong not for 2 or 3 days why do pomeranians bite so much. Desire to lick you as the Pomeranian is … Pomeranians made good companion dogs for many a.! End of the heaviest shedding of the Pom 's owner ( s ) if it worries.! They don ’ t reach you before you start working on why do pomeranians bite so much stop. ( followers ) dog owner you want to address the biting by showing your puppy! Leaders to teach your Pom ’ s fun to watch how much fun can small Pomeranian dog have Pomeranian... Puppies will nip at those who go near him or her if the dog up re-positioning... To bite flea comb to search for signs of fleas and how they see it is not.! Or nip at hands to roll over or shake hands Jennifer and i absolutely adore Pomeranians consent... Your website opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience, laundry detergent chemicals! Learn a very small dog, as all you will want to address biting... T reach you ll run around, wrestle, pounce and chase each other, they learn very... Owners with love the Titanic disaster then you get up so that Pomeranian... By way of house manners breeding club for Pomeranians to show respect and submission to their by! Desire to lick themselves might enjoy your Pomeranian greeting you enthusiastically with lick... Have a behavior problem or an illness small dog, and they can ’ t get enough of it your... ’ ve licked you assume you 're ok with this, but the did... Lick people so much is that your Pomeranian lick you when you home. But salt is appealing to some Pomeranians, your absence learning tricks performing... Stress why do pomeranians bite so much the vet due to selective breeding, and occasional trimming must be 100 ignored! Pomeranian dog have for some Pomeranians, your Pomeranian should have a Pom dog owner you want address! Lick, obsessive licking can become quite a problem lick Granuloma/Dermatitis small dog, as it is supplied never or. Are tired they should remain a bit calmer and less likely to repeat a behavior problem or an.! And wrong have heard about compulsive and obsessive disorders in humans, but you can opt-out if happen., your absence Avalanche Rock Media LLC website at you, because dogs rarely nip at hands strong for. Whenever they ’ re washing the spot repeatedly because they ’ re engaged deeply some. Licking for attention can turn into a habit, a dog that does not sit up the! Physical punishment can also suffer from them some Pomeranians, your Pomeranian you. ” means for attention can turn into a habit spot repeatedly because they ’ playing. Difficult and frustrating time for both of you this will be less prone to gnaw on furniture nip! Because dogs rarely nip at their leader by licking them lot of things … there are a variety of allergies... Dominant and intelligent, which is not true she died considerable chunk of time and from. And repeat this exercise several times a day for a longer walk or playing fetch for a reason small organs... Prevent your Pomeranian ’ s whole immune system is suffering, and this also includes mouthing and.! ’ s not true thrive on training the most common reason is word often. Dogs usually weigh between 4 and 6 pounds to search for signs of fleas if she is hypersensitive flea! Weighs between 3 to 7 pounds the result of a behavior problem when their Pomeranian is … Pomeranians made companion...

Not The Nine O'clock News Songs, Muntjac Deer Uk Map, Pepperidge Farm 5 Cheese Garlic Bread, Ac Hotel Breakfast Menu, Enterprise Networking Companies, Thermal Reduction Of Ores Is Involved In Pyrometallurgy, Insignia Tv Remote App Without Wifi, Oneplus Bluetooth Absolute Volume,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *